There are various types of database available in the market. Each database comes into use as per the requirement.
- Centralized database
- Distributed database
- Personal database
- Commercial database
- End-user database
- Relational database
- NoSQL database
- Operational database
- Cloud database
- Object-oriented database
- Graph database
As the name suggests, in a centralized database, all information(data) is stored at a central location from where different users access this data. In order to access data from centralized database, there is an authentication process which exhibits the data security.
A single database located at one site on a network.
Advantages of Centralized Database:
- Manipulation of data will not affect the core data. so lower the risk management.
- As the data is at a central repository, so data inconsistency is automatically maintained.
- It costs very less due to having data at one location need less number of vendors to handle database.
Disadvantages of Centralized Database:
- By the time data increases, load on the database increases.
- As the data is at central location, users from anywhere will request for data from the same database. This will cause late response time for retrieving the data.
- As data resides at one place. In case of database failure, all types of data will be lost forever.
In contrary of Centralized database concept, in distributed database the data is distributed among several database systems. Despite being different databases under an organization, communication is very easy because of communication links among them.
Distributed database is further divided into :
- Homogeneous DDB – executes on same operating system and use same application process.
- Heterogeneous DDB – executes on different operating system and use different application procedures.
When data is collected and stored on some personal computer system is called Personal Database. In Personal Database, data is small and easy to manage and designed for single user.
Commercial databases are designed specially for paid and huge data management. These types of database are subject specific and costs very high in maintenance.
End user database is specially designed for those user who usually not concerned about all operations. Only the end result or conclusive result are managed to presentable for end user.
Relational databases are used to store only categorized type of data into tabular format. Data are arranged in rows and columns, where columns defines the specific data entry for that data and rows contain the one instance of record or data. In relational database, each table has its own primary or unique key which recognize a record uniquely from the table.
MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle etc are best example of relational databases.
NoSQL database comes into use when there is a huge data is required to store in database. Unlike relational database, it stores data in various different ways. Now a days it is being used as of demand of modern application based architecture.
NoSQL databases further divided into four categories:
- Key-value storage
- Document-oriented database
- Graph databases
- Wide-columns storage system
Advantages of using NoSQL database:
- Enhance the productivity in the software development as it does not need a structured format to keep data in tables.
- Easily accessible data from database as it represents data in key-value relation.
- Best option for managing huge data sets.
- Supports high scalablity.
These kinds of databases are used in the field of transaction operations. It covers the data of marketing, employee relations and customer service etc. and creates updates in real time. Suitable for those applications which comes for daily use.
Cloud database is also know as a virtual environment. A cloud database is designed for those user where the storage capacity and bandwidth is managed to provide performance on the basis of end user paid criteria. It maintains the standard of scalability on demand along with high avalablity.
These types of databases uses the object based data model approach for storing and retrieving data in the database system.
Graph Database comes into use for storing huge and complex data in graph like structure. It is used for social networking applications due to analyzing interconnections.