PHP Data Types

In PHP, there are several data types that can be used to store different types of values. Here are some of the most commonly used data types in PHP:

  • Integer
  • Float
  • String
  • Boolean
  • Array
  • Object
  • NULL
  • Resource

PHP Integers

In PHP, an integer is a whole number without a decimal point. Integers can be positive or negative, and can range from -2147483648 to 2147483647 on 32-bit systems, and from -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807 on 64-bit systems.

Here are some examples of using integers in PHP:

// Assigning an integer value to a variable
$num1 = 10;

// Using an integer in an arithmetic operation
$num2 = 20;
$sum = $num1 + $num2; // $sum is now 30

// Incrementing and decrementing an integer
$num3 = 5;
$num3++; // $num3 is now 6
$num3--; // $num3 is now 5 again

// Using comparison operators with integers
$num4 = 15;
if ($num4 > 10) {
    echo "The value of num4 is greater than 10.";
} else {
    echo "The value of num4 is less than or equal to 10.";

// Converting a string to an integer using the intval() function
$str = "25";
$num5 = intval($str); // $num5 is now an integer with value 25

These are just a few examples of using integers in PHP. Integers can be used in a wide variety of applications, including arithmetic operations, loops, and conditional statements.

PHP Floats

In PHP, a float (also known as a double) is a number with a decimal point. Floats are used to represent real numbers and can be positive or negative. Floats are typically used for calculations that require more precision than integers, as they can represent fractional values.

Here are some examples of using floats in PHP:

// Assigning a float value to a variable
$price = 19.99;

// Using floats in arithmetic operations
$taxRate = 0.07;
$total = $price * (1 + $taxRate);

// Comparing floats with comparison operators
$float1 = 1.234;
$float2 = 1.233;
if ($float1 > $float2) {
    echo "float1 is greater than float2.";
} else {
    echo "float2 is greater than or equal to float1.";

// Formatting floats with number_format() function
$number = 1234.5678;
$formatted = number_format($number, 2); // $formatted is now "1,234.57"

It’s important to note that due to the way floats are stored in memory, they may not always be precise. For example, if you try to add 0.1 and 0.2 in PHP, the result may not be exactly 0.3 due to rounding errors. To work around this issue, you can use the bcmath extension or the arbitrary precision math functions in PHP.

PHP Boolean

In PHP, a boolean is a data type that can have one of two values: true or false. Booleans are often used in conditional statements and logical operations.

Here are some examples of using Booleans in PHP:

// Assigning a boolean value to a variable
$isMale = true;

// Using a boolean in a conditional statement
if ($isMale) {
    echo "This person is male.";
} else {
    echo "This person is not male.";

// Using logical operators with booleans
$hasAccount = true;
$hasSubscription = false;
if ($hasAccount && !$hasSubscription) {
    echo "This user has an account but no subscription.";

// Converting a value to a boolean using the (bool) cast
$num = 0;
$isZero = (bool) $num; // $isZero is now false

Booleans are commonly used in programming to represent the truth value of a statement. For example, a boolean could be used to represent whether a user is logged in or not, or whether a product is in stock or not.

PHP Array

In PHP, an array is a data structure that can hold multiple values of different data types in a single variable. Arrays are used to store and manipulate collections of related data.

Here are some examples of using arrays in PHP:

// Creating an indexed array
$fruits = array("apple", "banana", "orange");

// Accessing array elements
echo $fruits[0]; // Output: apple
echo $fruits[1]; // Output: banana
echo $fruits[2]; // Output: orange

// Changing array elements
$fruits[1] = "kiwi";
echo $fruits[1]; // Output: kiwi

// Adding elements to an array
$fruits[] = "grape";
echo $fruits[3]; // Output: grape

// Creating an associative array
$person = array(
    "name" => "John Doe",
    "age" => 30,
    "city" => "New York"

// Accessing associative array elements
echo $person["name"]; // Output: John Doe
echo $person["age"]; // Output: 30
echo $person["city"]; // Output: New York

// Looping through an array with a foreach loop
foreach ($fruits as $fruit) {
    echo $fruit . ", ";
// Output: apple, kiwi, orange, grape,

// Getting the length of an array with the count() function
echo count($fruits); // Output: 4

Arrays can be incredibly useful for storing and manipulating data in PHP, and they are a fundamental data structure in many programming languages. In PHP, arrays can be indexed (numeric keys) or associative (string keys), and they can contain values of any data type.

PHP Object

In PHP, an object is an instance of a class, which is a blueprint for creating objects. An object can contain data in the form of properties and functions in the form of methods.

Here is an example of creating and using an object in PHP:

// Creating a class
class Person {
    public $name;
    public $age;

    public function sayHello() {
        echo "Hello, my name is " . $this->name . ".";

// Creating an object
$person = new Person();
$person->name = "John";
$person->age = 30;

// Accessing object properties
echo $person->name; // Output: John
echo $person->age; // Output: 30

// Calling object methods
$person->sayHello(); // Output: Hello, my name is John.

In the above example, we created a Person class with two properties (name and age) and one method (sayHello). We then created a new Person object and set its properties, and called its method.

Objects in PHP are commonly used to model real-world entities, such as users, products, or orders, and to encapsulate related data and functionality. Objects can also be used for inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation, which are important concepts in object-oriented programming.

PHP resources

In PHP, a resource is a special variable that holds a reference to an external resource, such as a file, database connection, or image. Resources are created and managed by PHP’s built-in functions, and they are represented by resource type names, such as “stream” for file handles or “mysqli” for database connections.

Here are some examples of using resources in PHP:

// Opening a file and getting a file handle resource
$file = fopen("data.txt", "r");

// Reading from a file using a file handle resource
while (!feof($file)) {
    $line = fgets($file);
    echo $line;

// Closing a file handle resource

// Connecting to a database and getting a database connection resource
$mysqli = mysqli_connect("localhost", "username", "password", "database");

// Querying the database using a database connection resource
$result = mysqli_query($mysqli, "SELECT * FROM users");

// Closing a database connection resource

In the above examples, we created and used two different types of resources: a file handle and a database connection. We opened a file and read its contents using a file handle resource, and we connected to a database and queried its data using a database connection resource.

Resources in PHP are managed by the PHP engine, and they are automatically released when they are no longer needed or when the script finishes executing. It’s important to properly manage and release resources to avoid memory leaks and other issues.


In PHP, NULL is a special value that represents a variable with no value or an uninitialized variable. NULL is a data type that has only one value, which is also named NULL.

Here are some examples of using NULL in PHP:

// Initializing a variable with NULL
$var = NULL;

// Checking if a variable is NULL
if ($var === NULL) {
    echo "The variable is NULL.";

// Setting a variable to NULL
$var = "Hello";
$var = NULL;

// Checking if a variable is set or NULL
if (isset($var)) {
    echo "The variable is set to " . $var;
} else {
    echo "The variable is NULL.";

In the above examples, we initialized a variable with NULL and checked if it was NULL using the === operator. We also set a variable to NULL and checked if it was set or NULL using the isset() function.

NULL can be useful in PHP for indicating a variable with no value, or for initializing variables to a known state. It’s important to use NULL and check for NULL values properly to avoid errors and bugs in your PHP code.

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