PHP – What is OOP

OOP stands for Object-Oriented Programming, which is a programming paradigm that emphasizes the use of objects, classes, and methods to structure and organize code. In PHP, OOP allows developers to create reusable code components that can be easily extended and modified as needed.

At the core of OOP in PHP are classes and objects. A class is a blueprint or template that defines the properties and methods of an object. An object, on the other hand, is an instance of a class that can be created and manipulated at runtime. Properties are the characteristics or data associated with an object, while methods are the functions or behaviors that an object can perform.

OOP in PHP is based on four key concepts:

  1. Encapsulation: This is the concept of bundling data and methods that operate on that data within a single unit, which is known as a class. Encapsulation ensures that the data is hidden from the outside world and can only be accessed through defined methods.
  2. Inheritance: This is the concept of creating new classes by inheriting properties and methods from existing classes. Inheritance allows developers to reuse code and build on existing functionality.
  3. Polymorphism: This is the concept of creating multiple methods with the same name, but different parameters or implementations. Polymorphism allows developers to write code that can work with objects of different classes without needing to know the specifics of each class.
  4. Abstraction: This is the concept of defining the interface of a class without providing the implementation details. Abstraction allows developers to create reusable code that can be adapted to different use cases.

In PHP, these concepts can be implemented using classes, objects, methods, and properties. Here’s an example of how OOP concepts can be used in PHP:

class Animal {
  private $name;

  public function __construct($name) {
    $this->name = $name;

  public function getName() {
    return $this->name;

  public function makeSound() {
    echo "Animal makes a sound!";

class Cat extends Animal {
  public function makeSound() {
    echo "Meow!";

$cat = new Cat("Whiskers");
echo $cat->getName(); // Outputs "Whiskers"
$cat->makeSound(); // Outputs "Meow!"

In this example, we define an Animal class with a private $name property, a constructor that sets the $name property, a getName method that returns the $name property, and a makeSound method that outputs a generic sound.

We then define a Cat class that extends the Animal class and overrides the makeSound method to output “Meow!”.

Finally, we create a new instance of the Cat class and call its getName and makeSound methods. This demonstrates how inheritance and polymorphism can be used to create more specific and specialized objects from more generic ones.

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